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Topic Subject:Grammar Guide
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GandalfDaGraay
Dúnadan
posted 01-08-07 00:00 AM EDT (US)         
This guide will be posted in PDF format when I get a chance for easier reading.

GandalfDaGraay's

Guide to Good Grammar

After Toru Bozu's great guide on basic rules of writing, Kester suggested a guide to grammar and spelling. What you are reading now is my reference for basic grammar rules that any writer should follow. At the end, there is a section devoted to commas, along with a short bit on spelling.


Table of Contents:

Four Things Never To Do
 Run-On Sentences
 Sentence Fragments
 Subject-Verb Disagreement
 Double Negatives
Using Commas
Spelling
Final Comments

Four Things Never To Do

We all do dumb things from time to time. Here are detailed explanations of four dumb writing errors so that you will not commit them.

Rule 1: Run-On Sentences


What Not To Do:
Run-on sentences are the number one thing you can do to look bad you really shouldn't use them.

This error is extremely common and extremely wrong. Run-on sentences combine two individual thoughts or actions without separating them. Do not use run-on sentences. When there are two independent things going on in a sentence, stop and look back for a second. Did you properly separate the two thoughts? There are three ways to do this:

1. Use a semicolon (;) between the two thoughts. Be careful not to overuse semicolons, because they can stilt your writing. Example:

Run-on sentences are the number one thing you can do to look bad; you really shouldn't use them.

2. Use joining words like and or but between the two thoughts. This is proper when there is a relationship between them. Example:

Run-on sentences are the number one thing you can do to look bad, and you really shouldn't use them.

3. Separate the run-on sentence into two sentences. Sometimes semicolons and joining words are not the right solution, and separating the thoughts is the best way to get rid of the run-on sentence. Example:

Run-on sentences are the number one thing you can do to look bad. You really shouldn't use them.

Avoiding run-on sentences is easy and quickly improves your style. If you want to be a writer, you must eliminate all run-on sentences from your writing.

Top
Rule 2: Sentence Fragments


What Not To Do:
Sentence fragments. Are the opposite of run-on sentences.

Instead of running two complete thoughts together, fragments do not even express a complete thought. There is only one solution to this problem: ensure that every sentence clearly expresses who or what is doing the action, and what is being done. Example:

Sentence fragments are the opposite of run-on sentences.

Another example:

Shaking the dust from himself. Got up to his feet.
becomes
Shaking the dust from himself, he got up to his feet.

Sentence fragments and run-on sentences both ruin otherwise good writing. They interrupt the flow of a story, confuse the reader, and act like a large sign labeled “Amateur”.

However, some sentence fragments are acceptable for effect when used properly. Example:

Frustrated, the tracker bent to the ground and carefully examined the dirt. Nothing.

Here, “Nothing” is an acceptable sentence fragment..

Top
Rule 3: Subject-Verb Disagreement


What Not To Do:
In correct writing, the subject and the verb in a sentence oughts to agree.

That's right, no Gollum talk. Unless you're JRR, of course. Every correct sentence has both a subject and a verb. The subject can be either singular or plural: that is, there can be one object or multiple objects performing the action.

When you use a singular subject, you have to use a singular verb. Example:

Timmy was heading over to Tommy's house.


A plural subject requires a plural verb. Example:

Timmy and Bobby were heading over to Tommy's house.


To correct the original sentence:

In correct writing, the subject and the verb in a sentence ought to agree.

Top
Rule 4: Double Negatives


What Not To Do:
The members of the Fellowship pushed and pulled at the doors of Moria, but they couldn't get them to do nothing.

Hopefully this rule goes without saying. Multiple negatives do not emphasize negativeness. They're not cute, they're not cool, and they're not correct. It's okay to use double negatives in dialogue as required by the characters, but you should carefully consider how it will affect your readers' impression of the character. For the narrator, however, double negatives are never allowed.

To fix a double negative, just change one of the negatives into a positive. So:

The members of the Fellowship pushed and pulled at the doors of Moria, but they couldn't get them to do anything.

OR

The members of the Fellowship pushed and pulled at the doors of Moria, but they could get them to do nothing.


Choosing the right replacement is only a matter of which one sounds best.

Top
Using Commas

Commas. (See, there's a good sentence fragment for effect. ) The comma is the most mangled and mistreated part of English I've ever seen. From fan fiction to professional advertisements and publications, you can find the comma misused almost anywhere you look.

So when do you use commas? To sum up, use a comma to:

1. Set off an introductory word or phrase, including direct address:

See, there's a good sentence fragment for effect.
Jeeves, please get the door.” (Direct address)
While we were eating, the phone rang.
Pulling back a curl of hair from her eyes, she began the strenuous healing process.


Notice that in each of these sentences, the underlined portion is unnecessary. The sentence is grammatically correct if it's removed. The underlined portion, however, cannot stand alone. This part of the sentence is called a subordinate clause. If you have a subordinate clause, you will almost always use a comma.

2. Set off any other subordinate clause:

Gandalf knew that, to be honest, collapsing the Tavern was wrong.
Faramir and owyn sat by the bay, watching the sun set.

3. Separate items in a series:

Elrond fumed as he considered the love triangle between Aragorn, Arwen, and owyn.


Some people omit the second comma in a series, but for clarity's sake it's best to use it.

When a series contains one or more series inside it, use semicolons for the main series and commas for the sub series:

The restaurant's menu included spinach, liver, and tripe; pork roast; and chicken cordon bleu.

4. Separate two independent thoughts linked by and or but:

I cast a glance back into the gloom, but the forms of my pursuers were hidden by the intense wall of darkness behind me.

When you link the sentences with however, use a semicolon instead of a comma. Separate however from the sentence with a comma:

I threw my full weight against the gate; however, the sealing spell was too well cast to defeat with brute force.

5. Separate two consecutive adjectives modifying the same thing:

The beautiful, priceless vase toppled to the floor.


This list isn't exhaustive, but it covers the most important places to employ commas. Used properly, commas add professionalism and clarity to your writing.

Top
Spelling

Spelling is one of the hardest things for many writers. The English language finds several ways to form most sounds, so spelling a word correctly may involve more than simply sounding it out. The best way to improve your spelling is to read. You will absorb crucial spelling, vocabulary, and writing technique by reading quality books.

Still, there are a few similar words that anyone can easily confuse. If you're unsure about a word, look it up in here. I'll use pairs of these similar words in sentences so you can get a solid picture of their differences.

WordUseExample
 
itsPossessiveIts feathers glistened in the light.
it'sContraction: it isIt's not easy being green.
 
ourPossessiveOur pains were rewarded with success.
hourNounI'll see you in an hour.
 
theirPossessiveTheir faces reflected hope and promise for the future.
they'reContraction: they areThey're heading for the park.
thereOtherThere is the city of Minas Tirith.
 
threwPast VerbHe threw the broken remote across the room.
throughPrepositionLook through the telescope.
 
toPrepositionTake me to your leader.
tooOtherMy mom was furious, and my aunt was, too.
twoNumber (Adjective)I piled two helpings of lasagna on my plate.
 
wouldHelping verbWould you like to be a hero?
woodNounThe carpenter built a shed out of wood.
 
writeVerbI will write an essay.
rightAdjectiveYou are wrong, and I am right.
 
yourPossessiveYour message was intercepted.
you'reContraction: you areYou're not listening to me.

This list is by no means complete. If you want to submit a group, or even individual difficult words that you think should be included, you can e-mail them to me at snipefighter@yahoo.com.

Top
Final Comments

Hopefully, this guide is helpful to your writing. Still, I stress that the only complete solution for improving your grammar and spelling is to read quality books. If you haven't read the Lord of the Rings, then that should definitely be on your reading list. You should also pick up at least a few older classics (i.e. Charles Dickens, Jane Austen, etc.). It has been said that reading is the key to writing, and I agree wholeheartedly. This guide is only that a guide. As in painting and composing music, the best way to learn is to study the masters.

Good luck with your writing!

GandalfDaGraay


Heck to the darkness
"That's fairly similar to what I thought you sounded like. Deep, gravelly, and wise sounding. Though the gravelly bit could've been mic quality?" -Atzy
"HeavenGames forbid!" -Smeagolfan24

[This message has been edited by GandalfDaGraay (edited 01-13-2007 @ 11:13 PM).]

AuthorReplies:
Primo
Dúnadan
(id: Marcus Orentius)
posted 01-14-07 08:05 AM EDT (US)     26 / 60       
Using capitals would be a good section to add. Too many times have I seen a forumer not bother to capitalise their 'i's or even start with capitals.

Spacingwouldbeanothergoodsectiontoadd.


Exilian - a website for mods for Mount&Blade, Rome Total War, Empire Total War and news about Shogun 2: Total War
"There is no extreme metal, death metal, progressive metal or vegetarian metal." - Tryhard
"Light infantry, rangers, and riflemen all have the unique ability to pull yard-long poles from their arseholes and plant them in order to stave off cavalry." - BurningSushi460
GandalfDaGraay
Dúnadan
posted 01-14-07 10:14 AM EDT (US)     27 / 60       
Good ideas. Yes, spacebetweenwords. Think I'll have to explain what words are?

Heck to the darkness
"That's fairly similar to what I thought you sounded like. Deep, gravelly, and wise sounding. Though the gravelly bit could've been mic quality?" -Atzy
"HeavenGames forbid!" -Smeagolfan24
elder_king
Guest
posted 01-14-07 10:21 AM EDT (US)     28 / 60       
Please add a list of all the letters in the alphabet just in case I forget one.

"None has ever caught him yet, for Tom he is the master"
Smeagolfan24
WICH Fanfic Moderator
posted 01-14-07 05:52 PM EDT (US)     29 / 60       
Now you're just being annoying.

.:|Smeagol|:.
World in Conflict Heaven Cherub
Battle For Middle-earth II Heaven Replay Reviewer and Ledgend

Where did I go wrong? I lost a friend somewhere along in the bitterness.
Oh, I would have stayed up with you all night, had I known how to save a life...
elder_king
Guest
posted 01-14-07 08:24 PM EDT (US)     30 / 60       
What?! You mean you have memorized every single letter? That's impressive.

I think a guide to semicolons would be helpful.


"None has ever caught him yet, for Tom he is the master"
EnemyofJupitor
HG Alumnus Superbus
posted 01-15-07 05:10 AM EDT (US)     31 / 60       
Yes, especially as you need to use them to get a high level GCSE, and most Enlish teachers in my experience are crap.

And I shall go Softly into the Night Taking my Dreams As will You
GandalfDaGraay
Dúnadan
posted 01-15-07 07:29 AM EDT (US)     32 / 60       
Sure, I'll toss in the semi-colons.

Not sure about the alphabet thing, I can't remember all of them.


Heck to the darkness
"That's fairly similar to what I thought you sounded like. Deep, gravelly, and wise sounding. Though the gravelly bit could've been mic quality?" -Atzy
"HeavenGames forbid!" -Smeagolfan24
MightyFireball
Dúnadan
posted 04-17-07 00:20 AM EDT (US)     33 / 60       
Well, there's A, B, C, and uhhh... I don't know what comes after that.

Smoke Rings Award Winner
Chill with me.
Scotty the Fallen
Dúnadan
posted 04-17-07 01:53 AM EDT (US)     34 / 60       
ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ
abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz

There


Scotty the Fallen | One-time Angel Reincarnate, and Former BFME2H and TWH Downloads administrator, and BFME2 Strategy Administrator.
"And I shall go softly into the night, taking my dreams, as will you." - EoJ
"Scotty's probably the only forumer here who can make every post a defiant claim of his own superiority." - Atzy
Alias Alive
Banned
posted 04-17-07 03:02 AM EDT (US)     35 / 60       
What would we do without you SS. Besides throw a party I mean.
TaylorFlame
Lizard the Bard
posted 04-17-07 04:33 AM EDT (US)     36 / 60       
Without SS, the fine barrier between my army and EoJ's army would be eradicated, due to it requiring the power of a green moderator. This would cause a war that would destroy no less then 2 different Heavens.

TaylorFlame - The Definitive Man.
EnemyofJupitor
HG Alumnus Superbus
posted 04-17-07 10:37 AM EDT (US)     37 / 60       
In other words, TWH and BFME2H would become a spam fest with (Shock! Horrer!) no grammar!

And I shall go Softly into the Night Taking my Dreams As will You
Boba Fettuccini
Culinary Mandalorian
posted 06-19-07 09:44 PM EDT (US)     38 / 60       
SWGBH soooo needs this thing.

Boba Fettuccini
( (_) (_ | (\| (-\ (\ / ----- (\/| (-\ (\| |) (-\ (_ () (\ | (-\ (\|
Slow dancing is more fun when you treat it like bumper cars.

Boba-Fettuccini.com - Music, Comics, and a Really Swell Guy
Ps2man0
Dúnadan
posted 06-20-07 06:01 AM EDT (US)     39 / 60       
Spam, especially that which uses poor grammar, is not cool. - Aeneas

[This message has been edited by Aeneas2 (edited 06-20-2007 @ 07:40 AM).]

Arvedui
Messiah of Fail
(id: ashwin13)
posted 07-21-07 00:29 AM EDT (US)     40 / 60       
A lot of people need to read this.

"Arvy is randomly full of win." - Skarr
|
"I don't watch cartoons, those are for third class people." - Arvy
"Yeah, children, those third class people." - Sails
And because I bet Blatant he wouldn't be orange in two days and lost... HEIL BLATANT!
The Reduszebrus
Dúnadan
(id: reduszebrus)
posted 09-17-07 06:17 AM EDT (US)     41 / 60       
Most of the world needs to read this.

Redus
Bfme2h|HWH|HG main|Redus' blog
Winner of the best post in the 2007 Bfme2H awards, because I had the only nomination.
So this is how freedom dies, to a round of applause.
+1-Drakontos
Arvedui
Messiah of Fail
(id: ashwin13)
posted 09-17-07 05:52 PM EDT (US)     42 / 60       
i.e. A lot of people ...

"Arvy is randomly full of win." - Skarr
|
"I don't watch cartoons, those are for third class people." - Arvy
"Yeah, children, those third class people." - Sails
And because I bet Blatant he wouldn't be orange in two days and lost... HEIL BLATANT!
Catabre
BFME2H Replay Reviewer - Library Guildsman
posted 11-19-07 11:29 PM EDT (US)     43 / 60       
I have referred to this excellent guide multiple times. Thanks again GDG! /

"Apparently, arguing for the right to do something no-one wants to do is the lifeblood of HG." - TaylorFlame

"Whatever happened, BFME2H did it better. No Exceptions." - EnemyofJupitor
Tolkien
Dúnadan
posted 11-19-07 11:51 PM EDT (US)     44 / 60       
I say 'you're welcome' on my character's behalf.

Tolkien
The True Lord of the Rings
Kyr Nelenar
Dúnadan
(id: darkservant)
posted 11-20-07 05:16 AM EDT (US)     45 / 60       
Now now Tolkien, we both know you are a portal, so I'll have none of this "character" stuff ...

_.,-=~+"^'`:Kyr Nlnar:`'^"+~=-,._
"n rans Helara" - "Live Well Friend"
"krnai Scar-lu" --- "krnai of Thirteen"
Remember Kids: "Kyr" rhymes with fire...
Sometimes your imagination inspires other people to use theirs.-Sir Hugh-
Tolkien
Dúnadan
posted 11-20-07 07:47 PM EDT (US)     46 / 60       
I am no portal, I am a writer, a great one at that, and Gandalf is one of my characters.

Tolkien
The True Lord of the Rings
Kyr Nelenar
Dúnadan
(id: darkservant)
posted 11-20-07 08:16 PM EDT (US)     47 / 60       
I am no portal, I am a writer
Portal>Writer ...
Note: Portal is like Writer2...

_.,-=~+"^'`:Kyr Nlnar:`'^"+~=-,._
"n rans Helara" - "Live Well Friend"
"krnai Scar-lu" --- "krnai of Thirteen"
Remember Kids: "Kyr" rhymes with fire...
Sometimes your imagination inspires other people to use theirs.-Sir Hugh-
Tolkien
Dúnadan
posted 11-20-07 08:33 PM EDT (US)     48 / 60       
I have never viewed myself as great, even if others have.

Tolkien
The True Lord of the Rings
Kyr Nelenar
Dúnadan
(id: darkservant)
posted 11-21-07 12:55 PM EDT (US)     49 / 60       
Never did I say that the 'greater than' symbol meant greater than ...

_.,-=~+"^'`:Kyr Nlnar:`'^"+~=-,._
"n rans Helara" - "Live Well Friend"
"krnai Scar-lu" --- "krnai of Thirteen"
Remember Kids: "Kyr" rhymes with fire...
Sometimes your imagination inspires other people to use theirs.-Sir Hugh-
TaylorFlame
Lizard the Bard
posted 11-21-07 03:34 PM EDT (US)     50 / 60       
Then what does it mean?

TaylorFlame - The Definitive Man.
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